Because I found no confirmation for the existence of an actual crater (Figure 11), I put that idea aside. In 1994, however, I found another reason to look closely at this feature following my introduction to the Monuments of Mars (Figure 12) by Richard C. Hoagland (1992). See also Carlotto (1991) and McDaniel (1993) for additional illustrations, delineations, and descriptions of the Martian anomalies for what is called the Cydonia Complex. After an encounter with a UFO in the valley on 26 March 1994 I had a vision of a tan disk covered with hieroglyphs. At the center of this disk I saw an elliptical bulge raised above the other hieroglyphs. On that raised area I saw a crop-glyph design that I recognized. It was the "Octopus," the first true insectogram to appeared in England in June 1991(Bartholomew, 1991: 22; 38). The octopus is an ancient symbol for the Water Demon (Churchward, 1968). Following that encounter, I took particular interest in the crater-like feature I had mapped earlier near the UFO hot spot. A crater-like construct called Avebury Circle in England has been compared to the Crater of Cydonia on Mars (Figure 12). Nearby in the vicinity of Stonehenge there is a cone-shaped mound called Silbury Hill. It resembles the Tholus on Mars. These two features and their spacing are at one sixth scale of the features on Mars. Because they are associated with crop circle formations and UFO activity, I thought perhaps the crater-like feature in the Wallkill River valley (fig. 11 and fig. 13) might have similar significance. I measured the diameter of the Crater in the Wallkill River valley, and it is 2.3 miles wide, which is the same diameter for the Crater on Mars. Then I took my hunch one step further: I looked for the Cliff or a remnant of it to the southwest of the Crater, and I found a low ridge with the same relative orientation and proportions as the Cliff on Mars. This ridge, like the Crater, also cuts across the erosional grain of the valley (Figure 13). I then measured the distance from the Crater on Mars to the Cliff, and compared it to the distance from the remnant of the Crater on Earth to the remnant of the Cliff. They were the same! In addition, a road runs the entire length of the ridge along the axis of the Cliff, and coincidentally this road is called Hill Avenue. Its length from Albany Post Rd. up to the ridge to the west is exactly the length of the Cliff on Mars.

From a map provided by a geologist (J. Erjavec) that he made for the Cydonia I Complex on Mars (Figure 14), I noted that the center of the Crater was at about 41 degrees, 36 minutes latitude. My familiarity with latitudes and longitudes for the Wallkill River valley made this measurement stand out. I then carefully measured the center for the remnant of the Crater on Earth, and it came out at 41 degrees, 36 minutes! I was stunned! Even though the longitudes are different, and depend on where zero longitude is placed, the fact that the craters had the same latitudes could not be attributed to coincidence. Latitudes are relative measurements between the equator of a planet and its poles, and range from zero latitude at the equator to 90 degrees at the poles. Thus, latitudes have a geometric relationship, while longitudes and their positions have arbitrary relationships.

I then wondered if there might be other features of the Cydonia I Complex in the valley. I calculated the proportionate distance to the Face and measured the distance on Earth. There at the end of my ruler was this unusual mound that resembled a brow ridge and nose line (Figure 15). Following the UFO encounter on 26 March this feature and its resemblance to the Face jumped out at me when I looked at the map. Below the nose was a linear depression and below that a remnant of what could be a jaw line. But the feature was highly eroded and the Wallkill River had breached the Face just below the nose along the upper lip! Another tributary of the Wallkill outlines the top of the Face exactly, and connects with the main river on both sides of the Face. But how could a river as large as the Wallkill form over a large mound when its loop tributary seems to provide a path of less resistance? The river clearly cut down next to a (nose) ridge oriented perpendicular to its course, and cliffs formed on both sides. Even without the Face as a model for what this feature on Earth might have been, there is no way a river the size of the Wallkill could become nestled between two prominent hills made of bedrock if the cut had not previously existed. Evidence suggests that the valley was filled with glacial-retreat sands, silts, and clays, as it still is to the south around Pine Island where up to 12 foot-thick lake and bog deposits provide rich black soils for onion cultivation. If the depth of the post-glacial fill had been gradually reduced through water erosion over the last 10,000 years, the position of the river can be best explained via topographic capture as the original topography of the valley became exhumed. By coincidence the river found a natural water course or path-of-least-erosional-resistance across the Face through the mouth, and it was subsequently held there by non-glacial mounds to either side. For the river not to switch to its secondary loop around the top of the head, the sediments in the mouth or notch had to have been softer and more easily eroded than valley fill sediments around the Face. The river even loops into the left eye socket, helping to define its shape and presence. With continued erosion and down cutting, the river has begun to cut into and undermine what remains of the lip and base of the nose.

But what is also evident is that the Face, Crater, and Cliff on Earth are proportionately the same size (same scale) as their counterparts on Mars. Also, the Face on Earth is the mirror image of the one on Mars, evidenced by the slant and orientation of the nose ridge. I measured the length of the Face and came up with 1.4 miles, the exact length of the Face on Mars. Then I pulled out a larger scale map, enlarged a photograph of the Cydonia I Complex to the same scale, and looked for other features. I found them (Figure 16). I measured the distance from the center of the Crater on Earth to the center of where the City lies. The distance is 26 miles, the exact distance between those points on Mars. In addition, the overlay of Cydonia on the Wallkill River valley fit exactly within the margins of the inner valley, which is demarcated by ridges and mountains. And each position lay at a critical topographic flexure or position within the valley. What is the probability of being able to take about twelve geologic anomalies over a 200 square mile area from one planet and find a corresponding match for those same anomalies on Earth? What I discovered is beyond coincidence or wishful thinking. All but one major feature can be located and recognized by topography, stream patterns, and geology.

The following synopsis and maps comprise the evidence:


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