In the area between the City square II and the D&M Pyramid II an unusual array and pattern of small mounds occurs. Keith Morgan (pers. comm., 1994) pointed out the possible significance of the same relative area on Mars, which prompted me to look for anomalous patterns of hills and mounds around Pine Island. In Cydonia I a pattern of relatively small knobs or mounds is evident on the Viking images. These knobs form five distinct equilateral triangles when connected by straight lines. Some triangles are connected in pairs with a common side. Another set of mounds forms a quadrangle. And then there is the curved configuration, which is formed by a series of mounds arranged as if placed along an invisible exponential curve. When measured, the interval between mounds is exactly twice the distance of the previous mound interval along the curve. In the City I the tops of the pyramids form a perfect pentagon. Dr. Horace W. Crater of The University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, TN, did a probabilistic analysis of these geomorphological anomalies on Mars, measuring with precision the spacing and angles formed by these configurations. He gave a talk on his results at the Moon/Mars Forum in Cody, WY, on 18 September 1994. Crater came to the following conclusions in his paper:
All four sets of geometric figures appearing by chance are:
QUADRANGLE ONE IN 55,000 FIVE EQUILATERAL TRIANGLES ONE IN 700,000 CITY PENTAGON ONE IN 6,000 CURVE CONFIGURATION ONE IN 1,000,000
The compound odds of these formations all happening by chance are about ONE in 2,310,000,000,000,000 or ONE in 2 QUINTRILLION, 310 QUADRILLION, indicating that they were placed there by intelligent design (Crater, 1994).
When I examined the analogous region of Cydonia II, I found knobs and the tops of hills oriented to form suspicious configurations (fig. 19 and fig. 20). But what I found was unlike anything found in Cydonia I. What I discovered was an enormous area in the shape of a rectangle, 2.2 miles wide and 3.8 miles long, carved or sculptured out of granite mountains, just waiting for someone to look for the redundant patterns (Figure 20). After my UFO encounter these features leaped out at me on the map. A granite plateau having any geometric shape at all is highly anomalous. The spiral pattern of enclosed rectangles does not conform to a sacred "golden mean" rectangle, but instead forms the ancient hieratic letter H (Churchward, 1968). According to Churchward the Rectangle is an ancient symbol for Mu, the Motherland. It is also a symbol for mother, Earth, land, country, empire, and anything pertaining to the soil. But was the Motherland restricted to the southern hemisphere? The northern representation of the Motherland (Cydonia II) was not submerged beneath liquid water as legend tells (remembers) the story, but beneath frozen water - the Laurentide Ice Sheet! It has subsequently re-emerged from water, just as the legend said it would. Its location was remembered only as "beyond the sunset," until now.
One of the first patterns I noticed was an enormous Fibonacci "golden mean" spiral, like the one deciphered at Giza (Hoagland, 1992: Fig. 40), which begins in a mollusk-like spiral in the lower left corner of the rectangle, curves and touches the right side of the rectangle, and ends in the upper left corner (Figure 20). This pattern or spiral is evident in the alignment of hill tops, ridges, and topographic slopes (colored in blue on the map). Even the initial loop at the center of the spiral is preserved as an elliptical knoll. But what is even more surprising is that there are traces indicating the borders of smaller rectangles carved into the landscape, which define the position of the spiral. As stated above, a similar pattern of enclosed rectangles of increasing size can be found in the hieratic letter H, the symbol of the Four Great Primary Forces in the language of Mu. In Sacred Inspired Writings this symbol is also called "the Sacred Four" (Churchward, 1968). Crop glyph designs, perhaps representing a symbolic Fibonacci spiral, are redundant in some crop formations: e.g. Mr. Curlyman (see photographic insert on Fig. 20). On the Nazca plateau in southern Peru a figure of "a big monkey [is] tied to a riddle of geometric forms. The monkey's body is defined by a continuous unbroken line. And, without ever being interrupted, this same line winds up stairs, over pyramids, into a series of zigzags, through a spiral labyrinth (the tail), and then back around a number of star like hairpin bends." (Hancock, 1995: 41). This spiral labyrinth is a symbolic Fibonacci spiral, present in ancient rock art of the North American southwest.
In addition, there is a perfect circle on the plateau with a diameter of 1.17 miles. It surrounds the center of the spiral. Another circle of equal diameter lies just to its northeast. The second double circle involves part of the southern slope of Mt. Eve, which is an unusually-shaped granite mountain that rises 660 feet above the floor of the valley. The shape indicated by the mountain is that of a key, with three rectangular "teeth" that increase in length going from north to south (Figure 20). The base or shaft of that key connects to the large donut-shaped circle at the southern end of Mt. Eve (colored red on the map). This "Key" is identical in shape to a crop circle called the "Key" or Kennetts pictogram, which appeared in England on 27 July 1991, and which pointed towards Silbury Hill (Bartholomew, 1991). A picture of that crop glyph is also given for comparison. The "teeth" on it, like those of Mt. Eve, also increase in length towards the circle. Keep in mind that these features in the Wallkill River valley are probably highly eroded, and that this entire rectangular area may once have been a plateau with raised relief. With erosion it gradually "melted" and changed shape like a giant ice sculpture in the heat. But even a melting ice sculpture retains its basic form, although details are lost. Now only remnants or traces of the original raised pattern on the plateau remain. If that is not compelling evidence of something spectacular and artificial, there is more: Another spiral originates from the second (northern) circle and joins the spiral that intersects the first (southern) circle. A line drawn connecting the centers of those two circles is on line with the Tholus, just as the "Key" pictogram in England was aligned with Silbury Hill (provided as an insert in Figure 20). Does this valley hold the "Key" to the mystery and to the land of Mu?
An historical record indicates that the earliest European settlers found a half mile long tunnel inside Mt. Eve, meticulously carved into solid granite, and just wide and tall enough to hold an average person (R.J. Webster, pers. comm. 1994). The entrance to this tunnel is supposedly located on the east side of the mountain, but recent attempts to locate it failed (R. Gumaer, pers. comm. 1994). Similar but much shorter tunnels end blindly in the Shawangunk Mountains near Ellenville, New York.
Mt. Adam, which is located at the south-western end of Mt. Eve, is a small pyramid-shaped granite feature that rises almost 500 feet exactly above the valley floor (Figure 21). For comparison, the largest pyramid at Giza was originally 481.3949 feet tall (Hancock, 1995: 178). Why a valley should separate it from Mt. Eve is unclear if it was separated naturally through erosion. I could not find evidence of a major fault or fracture system separating those two mountains, but that does not mean one doesn't exist. The overall eroded base of Mt. Adam best fits that of a semicircle or crescent Moon, another ancient symbol dating back to Sumer (Sitchin, 1996). The overall shape of the mountain above its base is that of a diamond-shaped pyramid. The very top of the mountain is flat, forming what may have been a small platform for another structure, which would have been destroyed by glaciation. Like the older ziggurat pyramids of Sumer (e.g. at Uruk near the Euphrates River), Mt. Adam may have had a small temple built at its top. Perhaps that is what is being shown in the green hologram in Plate 1, which in the image appears to have an angled side of a pyramid exposed behind the lower left corner of the temple.
There are three main ridges at the top of Mt. Adam which are formed by three of the pyramid angles. The ridges intersect the platform at the top to form a crude cross, or perhaps a T for Tau, the ancient symbol for resurrection and emersion (Churchward, 1968). A fourth short ridge, not evident on the topographic map (Figure 19), extends the "vertical" shaft of the cross above its "horizontal" member. It was discovered when we climbed the mountain in 1994. The shaft is oriented 13 degrees northwest from true north, and it forms a 30 degree angle with the diameter of the semicircle (i.e. the east face of Mt. Adam). The eastern face is oriented on a sight line to the nose on the Face II. In addition, there are faint traces of small steps on the northwest and southwest sides of Mt. Adam (Figure 22). The steps near the top of the mountain are better preserved than those further down the sides, perhaps due to less severe chemical and physical weathering near the top. If these visible features are steps, they may have been carved to hold a facing of different composition, just as the steps of the three main Giza pyramids were employed to do. Because erosion has reduced the shape, angularity, and continuity of the steps, they are not obvious until the leaves on the trees are gone during Fall and Winter. Evidence for these steps can be seen as regular or repetitious benches near the top of the mountain (Figure 22, arrows), which stand out in contrast to the structural grain of the granite, which bends and turn this way and that. When looking at the mountain from the north during the Summer I discovered that the tree tops appear to be aligned in rows, implying the existence of an underlying regular pattern that could be a reflection of eroded steps. It is highly unusual to find trees growing in regular rows up the side of any mountain!
A major axis runs parallel with the long side of the rectangle through a valley on the east side of Mt. Eve (Figure 20). This axis is defined by parallel ridges to the south of Mt. Eve also. To the east of this axis three elongate hills are positioned roughly equidistant from one another. The shape and size of those hills resemble what one might expect for eroded remnants of structures the shape of the Egyptian Sphinx. But in size they are much larger, ranging from 2,300 feet long to 3,100 feet long, whereas the Sphinx is only 240 feet long! Because the southernmost hill has three appendages sticking out, one at the northeastern end and two at the southern end, it may have represented some sort of appendaged animal before erosion destroyed the details. A fifth knob or appendage, which lies between the two southern appendages, may represent a fallen head. After having fallen that feature would have been protected in the depression between the front legs and by Mt. Eve when and if glaciers advanced from the north. Only its top side should be eroded. Although the reader may think that I am reaching for straws and making unwarranted speculation, the Egyptian Sphinx was only recently connected to the constellation Leo. Its connection to Leo and Zep Tepi (Egyptian for the "First Time"), or the beginning of a new cycle following a major catastrophe on Earth, was accomplished through computer simulation. By rolling back the clock until the constellation Leo was in front of the Sphinx, Hancock and Bauval (1996) determined that the Sphinx and Valley Temple were probably constructed about 12,500 years ago (12,450 years ago: Jochmans, 1995). So my idea may not be as far fetched as it first sounds. The two northern mounds do not have any appendages attached. Could they represent portions of a vertically undulating tail, the tail of a serpent or scorpion? Could the southern mound with its appendages, possible head, and long tail represent a version or symbol for the constellation Scorpius, Serpens, or even Draco? Keep in mind that one of the constellations targeted by the four so-called ventilation shafts of the Great Pyramid is Alpha Draconis, and it is the Draconians or Targzissians who were being worshipped as terra-cotta effigies by the Ubaid people during pre-Sumer time (see below and photograph).
The highest points on those three hills form a straight line that intersects the main axis at 3 degrees. A similar alignment of hill tops to the east of the main rectangle parallels this alignment (redundancy). Because the alignment of the Sphinx-like bases is 3 degrees off the orientation of the main rectangle, which is 40 degrees northeast of true north, is this offset relevant? Might it represent the variation in rotational tilt of the Earth from true vertical at the time the plateau was carved (i.e. the Chandler wobble = 3 degrees)?
A transverse axis runs through the highest point on Mt. Eve and intersects Mt. Adam and the central Sphinx-like base. This axis is perpendicular to the long axis and sides of the main rectangle. Its orientation is 30 degrees southeast of current east. If this transverse axis direction was oriented in the direction of the solstice, it most likely represents the angle for the Winter solstice excursion. The Summer solstice excursion would be 30 degrees north of the old east-west direction. Using Hoagland's equation (Hoagland, 1992: 57) for computing planetary obliquity (tilt) at that time, I came up with 16.40 degrees: Sin 30 = sin 16.4 / cos 41.282. The current tilt of the Earth is about 23.5 degrees, an angle which can vary by as much as 1.5 degrees over a period of 41,000 years (i.e. the Chandler wobble). A tilt of 16.4 is significantly less than that today. If the Earth's axis were true vertical, heating of the Earth and the poles would be uniform. Glacial ice caps probably could not exist under such conditions, and at 16.4 degrees tilt, the amount of polar ice would have been significantly less than it is today, with sea level much higher. That might also mean the northern part of the valley was flooded. What is curious about this angle of tilt is that the tetrahedron on the rim of Crater I on Mars, when projected to Crater II on Earth, is 16.5 degrees west of the present geographic north pole! As interesting as these figures seem, they do not prove anything, because there are multiple variables involved. If the transverse axis on the plateau (Figure 20) does not represent an ancient east-west direction, the above math is irrelevant.
In Egypt the Sphinx is oriented due east. If the rectangle with its Key was constructed according to the four cardinal directions (north, south, east, and west) and the alignment of the Sphinx-like bases represents the direction of a particular constellation at that time of construction, comparable to the Egyptian Sphinx, then perhaps the long axis of the rectangle was oriented east-west. Such an orientation puts the paleo north pole in the northern Pacific Ocean at about 40 degrees latitude, producing an unlikely orbital tilt of 50 degrees, which would cause extremes in seasonal temperature changes at the poles and possibly put the Earth into a deep freeze. The idea of a pole shift is not new (cf. White, 1993). In order to correct the orientation of the rectangle so that its long axis is oriented east-west requires that the entire crust be rotated while keeping the orientation of the Earth's core roughly the same (Hancock, 1995; Flem-Ath & Flem-Ath, 1995). Is that possible? Is the Hopi legend of the Earth toppling on its axis and becoming covered in ice relevant? But what other evidence is there which could be used to support either radical theory or idea?
If one draws diagonals across the rectangle in Figure 20, they will intersect the near-median line at two points: One point crosses over the highest part of the southernmost Sphinx-like base, while the other marks the point of intersection of the line that follows the alignment of the Sphinx-like bases. I drew the lines of the rectangle before I recognized that the diagonals crossed at the points. In crossing these diagonals form angles of about 28 degrees with the middle (near-median) line. That angle is the angle of the ecliptic between due east (the equinox) and either Winter or Summer solstice points on the horizon (Hancock and Bauval, 1996). This relationship makes the long axis of the rectangle the ancient east-west cardinal alignment. The spread of diagonals at either the south or north end of the rectangle is 56 degrees (28 + 28 = 56), which is the range of the ecliptic or path of the Sun over its yearly cycle. Is this just coincidence? 56 is the function of Set (Wood, 1986), an astronomical number that reflects the precession and which was encoded in ancient Egyptian myth (cf. Hancock, 1995; Wood, 1986).
Rotating the rectangle 50 degrees clockwise so that the long axis is oriented east-west, using the center of Crater I in Figure 13 as the pivot point, rotates the position of the tetrahedron on the crater rim clockwise to 33.5 degrees east of current north (50 - 16.5 = 33.5). The difference in axial orientation between Cydonia I and Cydonia II is 36.5 degrees. Correcting for that difference requires that Cydonia II be rotated in a clockwise direction 36.5 degrees. There is only a 3 degrees difference (= the precession wobble), the exact difference in angle between the axis of the rectangle and the axis of the Sphinx-like bases! If the line connecting these bases was oriented due east during one point in Earth's precession, then 3 + 33.5 = 36.5. Was 36.5 degrees the tilt of the Earth's axis during the Wisconsin glaciation? Was Cydonia I on Mars (and the position of the tetrahedron on the crater rim) constructed at a different axial orientation relative to latitude as a clue so that we could calculate the amount of crustal displacement and/or pole shift since the deep freeze? Is there any other evidence to support such a radical idea?
On 28 October six people were positioned on the hexagonal mound at the center of the UFO hot spot (Figure 3). (See time lapse photos, fig. 23 and fig.24) At 9:02 pm, just after sunset, a craft turned on two blazing plasma lights and lifted off from a field to our northwest. It rose slowly and formed an arc across the sky as it descended to behind the trees to our east, where it disappeared. At the apogee of its flight it performed a hump on my photographs, marking the top of the arc. This performance I call the Circuit of Ra or the Arc of Nut. Following that hump the lights made a series of tiny loops and movements as if signing a name in cursive Arabic-like script. As best as can be determined from reconstructing the path with my photographs and relating them to compass direction, the hump occurred approximately 40 degrees northeast, plus or minus 5 degrees. That compass direction is basically the same orientation for the long side of the rectangle in Figure 20, which supports the above theory that the rectangle was oriented according to the paleo-meridian of the ecliptic (cf. Hancock and Bauval, 1996). Was I being given some help in figuring out this puzzle? And if I was, by whom? Is the date (28) on which this performance occurred a clue also? The movement of the craft along a symbolic ecliptic path was in the same direction the Sun changes position during its yearly precession.
If one measures the orientation angles of the other features within the Cydonia II Complex of the Wallkill River valley, and measures those angles from the intersection of the northeastern edge of the main rectangle where it intersects the central axis, you will discover as I did that the D&M Pyramid II center (top of its remnant) is directly on line with that northeastern edge. The Tholus (Stewart Airforce base) is located at 7 degrees to the northeast; the Crater II is located 17 degrees to the northwest; and the Face II is located 27 degrees to the northwest. Take the ratio between the angles: Face > Crater and Tholus > Crater (10/24), and one gets .416666. The center of the Crater II (common feature between these two angles) is located precisely at 41 degrees 36 minutes 30 seconds. That's 41.6166.
Around the Tholus II, particularly to the northeast, I noticed a series of hills that closely resemble the pattern that defines the center of the Fibonacci spiral south of Mt. Eve. I took a tracing of the pattern of the rectangle with its spiral and circles, and found a remarkable match around the Tholus II. I only had to rotate the rectangle and spiral 180 degrees (not a mirror image). The Tholus II occupies the same corner of the rectangle as Mt. Eve does to the south. Yet, many of the topographic features which help to identify and define the geometric patterns in the southern rectangle have been eroded and destroyed in the northern one. Enough correspondence occurs, however, to give support that such geometry may have been carved out around the Tholus II as well.
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